How to Cite
The geopolitical location of Iran has made this region a pivotal player in the politics of the ME. Prior to the Revolution of 1979, Iran was considered as the policeman of the Gulf, armed to the teeth with the active support of the US; Iran remained a steadfast ally of the US. In this framework, the study investigates the current position of Iran who is considered by the United States as a rogue state. Although the Khomeini Revolution of 1979 manifested the initiation of a novel epoch in Gulf Politics and it is still a force to be reckoned with. So, in the light of the above background, we will assess the importance of Iran as an important state in the theatre of power politics revealing in the ME and its subsequent effects on the future of ME Politics. The key questions here are, will Iran again emerge as an important supporter of the US? Is it a question that requires careful analysis? Our paper argues that the importance of Tehran as a regional actor cannot be ignored.
US, Iran, Middle East, Revolution
In this study, a bridge has been tried to be built between constructivism and diplomatic sensibility with connecting standards and philosophies to recognize with emphasizing the dealings, views, and principles in shaping marks and varieties (Katzenstein, 1996). To analyze the experience of Iran to make the new shape of its party-political uniqueness and the insight of itself in interactions with states; and, hence, how Tehran has a sagacity of the communal authenticity (Kreidie & Monroe, 2002). For people of this state and particularly Ayatollah Khomeini and those radicals who joined him. In fact, Tehran’s existing description is possessions of bygone days and existing reminiscences, as well as its ethnic societies grounded on their own variety of actions and observation of individuals.
Besides, historical actions, just like Operation Ajax and American bureaucratic nature, which consists of a decades-long policy into Tehran’s matters throughout the Pahlavi epoch, when US-supported Iran for Jerusalem and Muslim Kingdoms (Nasr, 2007) that formed the intellect of the people of Tehran. (Blumer, 1969). Now the article highlights those factors which produced Iran as a rising challenge to the USA, which is detailed below.
Certainly, the growth of Iran is owing to its geostrategic position; Islamism (Shiaism); atomic determinations; the growth of power in South Asia (Kabul), in ME (Baghdad, Beirut and the Land of Palestine Authority); stimulating area permanency to help prominent Islamic native and Islamist sets; plus the creation of its own control in the ME.
The Government of Tehran has the support from Asia (Moscow and Beijing), Damascus and some members from the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) to the Islamic Republics promise to the confrontation of the Oppressed anti the Oppressor explains that brands the planned strategy of Tehran’s government as mounting supremacy in the territory.
In this context, such accounts are communal theories that have socio-cultural and emotional responsibilities which are measured and communicated in their historical stance and are credible and imperative (Loseke, 2007). Tehran’s strategy of resistance is paramount, demonstrated in Tehran’s brashness in contradiction of Washington and Jerusalem. As it is recognized as the “egotistical supremacies”. As Tehran’s policymakers claim that confrontation against Washington and the Zionist administration are the fundamental dogmas of the Islamic Uprising’…‘this is the rule of Tehran to antagonize against the worldwide self-centeredness and attitude with the Worried’(Fulton, 2011).
The authenticity of the associations between Tehran and the West block (Washington-Jerusalem and Europe) is grounded on hesitation, aggression, and disagreement. For instance, Washington approved a law in 2010 for striking novel firm authorizations on Iran, Obama confirmed it along with others, they are remarkable at the proficiency of Iranian administration to fund and mature its atomic platform’ (Baker, 2010). The evidence from Tehran that in what way Iranian administrators understand the linguistic hypotheses their standpoint and reflection of the ‘big-headed controls’ that is the greatest clarification by previous President Ahmadinejad as he contended, ‘the real place is, they hostage Tehran's values, presence and strategies and unkind to battle and hinder the development of the state of Iran by any capitals’. He resumes his declaration as ‘those who desire to control the world are functioning on producing anxiety in our county to accomplish their objectives,’ containing that ‘they don’t permit us to progress as they want us to be in necessity of them’.
Likewise, in 1979 the Iranian Revolution demonstrated the dominant subject, which has been grounded on abolishing international tyranny, was under the refrain of Islamism and Shiaism. Its account was to shape a background of Iran’s Shia distinctiveness and that ‘every situation seems as Karbala, each month into the month of Moharram, and each day into a day of Ashura’ (Ervand, 1993).
Indeed, the revolution was aimed to eliminate the impact of the US in the area and the Shah out of Iran and to release the neighboring countries (Arabs) (Rubin, 2006). Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khomeini proclaimed ‘this uprising ... is not a separatist insurgence; this mutiny is a Quranic agitation; this insurrection is an Islamic rebellion. It was the imperceptible support of Allah which amalgamated the entire country (Milani, 1994). During that time period, his guidance exhibited the impression to the global public, in 1979, when he considered Washington as the “Great Conspirator,” declaring the US the opponent of Islam, predominantly with the provision of Jerusalem(Harik, 2005). This antiquity twisted into a two-edged armament, the Sunni-Shia separation in the for and against Washington associations. Meanwhile, the Islamic government incorporated the Worried states in the governmental complications as Iranians consider that it is their Islamic responsibility to help the Plagued ones. Its establishment under Article 152 announces to guard the privileges of all Muslims and to discard all arrangements of suggestion (Holliday, 2011).
Iran’s Escalating Uniqueness
Khomeini’s Velayat-e faqih spiritual nature of supremacy motivated the Iranian 12th Imam from its soft home beliefs to this epoch where living Imam; hold the definitive power over all Shiite supporters (Hodgson, 1974).
His behavior, examination of theocratic expert and capability to knock into the superiority of Iranian persons made him greater towards the ultimate Shia Camp of fairness (Dabashi, 1993). Shias abandoned their leftist and philosophies of patriotism and merged Shia activities which frequently were maintained by Tehran, such as al-Da’wa (the Islamic Call) in Iraq. Moreover, in 1982, when Jerusalem attacked Beirut, it proved a watershed moment in indigenous and intercontinental politics; plus, Iran had a prospect to hamper in Beirut. Hezbollah helped with the nearby connection from Tehran, and Damascus promised its provision to Iran and transferred armaments inside Beirut (Nakash, 2006).
Under the said agenda, it is clear that individuality is connected to the structure of the danger and characterizes a possible foundation of association establishment (Barnett, 1996). It revealed that Tehran was prepared to back the Palestinian problem powerfully and highlighted to welcome the conquered parts of Palestine by supplied fight (Moussalli, 2008), and to brand associations between (former) opponents of Arabs vs their own adversaries (Iranian) under an Islamic distinctiveness (Nasr, 2007). Likewise, a faction called Fathi al-Shiqaqi founded the Palestinian Islamic Jihad and developed robustly by uniting Iran that emphasized the practice of vehemence against Israel (Moussalli, 2008). Al-Shiqaqi combined the code of Islam with Khomeini as he dispersed that ‘Islam contributed the answer and Jihad was the appropriate way (Brandenberg, 2010).
Leading Distinctive Accounts and Universal Confrontation
While Iran confronted the UAE for the possession of the areas (Isles of Abu Musa) and Better and Smaller Tunb, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Republics advanced the US for their defense and contracted to dread increasing supremacy of Iran, King Abdullah disqualified the edifice of Shi’ite Mosques, imagining that it will be a ‘publicity residence’ to aggravate a Shiite rebellion.
A ‘description is exploited as one of the most extensive and influential procedures of dissertation in human communiqué. Tehran has a strong opinion about its nuclear operational immovable by the United States misunderstanding about the purposes of Tehran and absence of faith on how Iran observes its political ambience or how it goes about its accomplishments. In this condition, Washington has occupied strong procedures in (the shape of) authorizations in its exertions to destroy Iran’s atomic package and to decrease Iran’s effect (Patterson & Monroe, 1998). The overseas strategy of the US against Tehran has diverse from clandestine Central Intelligence Agency processes and funding tens of millions in the Democracy Promotion Program to kindle regime alteration, cyberwar, and selling weaponries of about billions of dollars ($66.3 billion in 2011 alone) to the GCC situations (Katzman, 2009).
Mojtaba Samareh Hashemi, the Senior Advisor of Ahmadinejad, articulated the figurative sense of its package as he records that the chief opinion of Iran’s nuclear energy program is ‘the representation of the Tehran’s practical and radical competences, the courage of the nation…its detection of self-respect, and the Iranian Islamic national individuality’. It is ostensible that the selections prepared by the administration of Iran are reproduced in their Islamic identity and how they observe authenticity. Adoptions are contingent on ‘who we are’ and ‘identity is anticipated to help as a leader to what we want and to how we wish for the world to be made’ (Kowert, 2012).
Making strong to the world that conditions do have the choice to accomplish the accountabilities of the transnational technique. On one side, states are autonomous, can perform easily, and make options of their own; and on the other side, states can be uncomfortable with their own self-governance by the influential states (Onuf, 1998). The latter is established by American strategies for Iran and how the strategies of the US can disturb other states.
In 2012, Senator Robert Menendez belonged to New Jersey (United States), stated that putting notice of all states that endure ingressing fuel or oil crops can meaningfully decrease those acquisitions or danger the burden of simple approvals on their monetary institutes. Moreover, the market can continue to familiarize with a decrease in acquisitions of oil and products from Iran’ (Mason and Rampton, 2012).
Likewise, the Panel of Councils of the International Atomic Energy Agency had an important and emergency meeting in August of 2005, about a statement issued by Iran insisting goals of diplomatic construction of nuclear aptitudes; as in a fatwa, Khamenei declared that ‘the manufacture, hoarding and usage of atomic armaments are forbidden under Islam and that the Tehran shall never gain these artilleries (Mehr News, 2005).
Iran’s Nuclear-powered Representative specified that we encounter once the world is memorizing the atomic intimidations of the cities of Tokyo. The cruelty of the violence and those who lost should never be detached from our reminiscence—making group the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) as the oppressed by the United States and its allied members claimed that none of the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty members of the NAM faith on nuclear weaponries at any cost for their own safety…nevertheless also numerous members of NAM are deprived of the practice of non-violent, nuclear knowledge by some of the nuclear-arms states and their associates by means of transfer controls and other renunciation preparations (Mehr News, 2005). The foundation of this dialogue is that Iran is irritating to demonstrate the dependability and validity of its nuclear energy package. Tehran, like other NAM states, are not certified to usage or have interaction to such a neutral package, although the irony of this communication is that America established recklessness and dual values to the world, and America has never been punished for butchery and hurting acquitted inhabitants. Additionally, emphasizing the earnestness to the US and the outstanding world about Iranian nuclear program, the Prime Minister of the government of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu specified ‘you want these zealots to have nuclear missiles’ as he demarcated a ‘red line’ around at what time to regimentally assault Iran (Benhorin, 2012). It is an element that the US will restrict if a war breakdown with the state of Israel. Tehran has continued its individuality description as Khamenei replied with these comments in an intense address that intimidating us and confronting us will damage America and the truth is that ‘approvals will not have any impression on our willpower to endure our nuclear progression’ (Khan, & Martinez 2012).
The Arab-Islamic revolts have altered the geopolitical condition of the states of ME. Currently, the growth of Tehran is deeply being confronted in Syria as Khamenei states ‘the certainty nearby the Syrian (matter) is that a proxy war (has been remunerated) by definite administrations, managed by the US and some other western influences, in contradiction of the administration of Syria with the aim of helping the welfares of the west particularly Zionist management and selling a setback to the confrontation in the area’ (Tehran Times, 2012).
The signal of this accusation is Saudi Arabia and Qatar, spreading its provision to the world by reimbursing the pays and supplying weaponry to the Syrian antagonism collections and Jihadists, whereas America was delivering intelligence (BBC News, 2012). The Iranian direction has responded to these actions, and the President of Ahmadinejad announced that the Islamic Republic would perform ‘all in its influence to fund this state’ to stop the catastrophe of Bashar al-Assad administration (Reuters, 2012). The penalties of the Syrian disaster have reduced the Sunni-Shia individuality into further separation, and this setback is undone by the Hamas quandary.
More than three years since the continuing political disaster exploded, Yemen is uncertain by an interweaved sequence of battles. The chief struggle is between Houthi insurgents, who devised the north with support from Tehran, and the intercontinental documented management, which pedals much of the rest of the state with support from an alliance commanded by Saudi Arabia. The stemming unselective ferocity has murdered more than 10,000 citizens. These battles have worsened a decades-old human disaster that has quickly fully-fledged into one of the cruellest in the world. The Inter-Agency Standing Committee declared a Level 3 alternative in Yemen in July 2015; around two-thirds of the people are in basic of assistance, with nearly 40 percent in severe requirement. Females, kids, racial and conscientious sections, and inside banished peoples are chiefly defenceless. The highest apprehension of numerous humanitarian administrations is the extensive lack of access to healthcare. The harshness of the humanitarian predicament has also augmented people to take actions which have made this region vulnerable as well.
The paper has primarily explored that in all conditions, the distinctiveness of Iranian stories has put her on the map as a chief actor in the ME in particular and in global policies in general. It commands towards new associations, sidelining American activities in that zone and ultimately inspiring the uprisings in the region. Now, the complete conflicting tier is amalgamated with local and international power. On the native and area levels, the Arab world is perceiving major illnesses rather than rebellions in the Arab countries; conceivable religious and ethnic changes; the terror of the increase of new relegated collections as a consequence of monetary and economic catastrophe; and power void in the freshly modern states of the old powerful formations. At the World level, Russia is along with China and the rest of the BRICS on the rostrum of the world, that is a warning for the US and its supporter who are struggling to control the position of Iran in this vital region of ME as well as Asia in the contemporary Century.